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An inherited disorder affecting bone development that results in short-limb dwarfism.
A white, odourless gel used in gel electrophoresis, a method used to separate out molecules such as DNA, based on their size and charge.
A short, chemically-synthesised, double-stranded DNA molecule which is used to link together two other DNA molecules.
One of the four nucleotide bases that make up DNA, pairs with thymine (or uracil in RNA).
A harmful side effect associated with the use of a medication that has been taken as instructed.
A complex sugar material, generally extracted from seaweed. It is frequently used in molecular biology for the separation of DNA by size using electrophoresis.
The final stage of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection when the immune system has been diminished to the point that the body can no longer fight life-threatening infections.
Different form of the same gene. In humans, alleles of particular genes come in pairs, and our characteristics are determined by the combination of alleles we have.
A degenerative disease that slowly and progressively destroys the brain. It is the single most common cause of dementia.
The building blocks of proteins, there are 20 different amino acids.
A microscopic, single-celled organism that has the ability to alter its shape. Amoebae live in fresh and salt water, in wet soil and in animals.
A cold-blooded vertebrate animal that characteristically hatches as aquatic larva with gills before becoming a terrestrial lung-breathing adult. Include frogs, toads, newts and salamanders.
A decline in red blood cells or haemoglobin in the blood resulting in a decreased amount of oxygen being carried around the body. It results in tiredness, shortness of breath and pale skin.
A type of medicine used to treat or prevent infections caused by bacteria.
When disease-causing bacteria develop the ability to survive exposure to antibiotics that were designed to kill them.
A protein secreted into the blood or lymph that binds to invading pathogens such as a bacteria, viruses and parasites. This then alerts the immune system to attack and destroy the pathogen.
Also known as programmed or controlled cell death, apoptosis is when a cell commits suicide. It has an important role in human development and disease, for example, apoptosis helps separate our fingers into 10 separate digits.
A common condition causing pain and inflammation in the joints.
A method used to achieve pregnancy by artificial or partially artificial means. For example, in vitro fertilisation (IVF).
A developmental disability that affects how a person communicates with, and relates to, other people. It is often diagnosed in early childhood and is characterised by repetitive behaviour, such as stacking or lining up objects.
A condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys its own tissue.
Making processes that were once done by hand, into automatic processes using machinery.
The surgical examination of a dead body to find out the exact cause of death. Also known as a post-mortem examination.
An image on a piece of X-ray film that is produced as a consequence of exposure to a radioactive substance. For example, the banding pattern from an electrophoresis gel containing fragments of radioactively labelled DNA.
A chromosome that is not a sex chromosome, for example chromosomes one to 22.
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