In biology, evolution is the change in the characteristics of a species over several generations and relies on the process of natural selection.
Infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi or parasites and can spread between individuals.
Gene therapy is when DNA is introduced into a patient to treat a genetic disease. The new DNA usually contains a functioning gene to correct the effects of a disease-causing mutation.
By the mid-1990s, when the Human Genome Project was in full swing, scientists were sequencing DNA using capillary sequencers.
Colorectal cancer, also known as bowel cancer, is a complex disease that is influenced by multiple genes and environmental factors.
Salmonella are a group of bacteria that cause a wide spectrum of diseases. They are able to cause significant morbidity, and in some case, mortality, in both humans and animals.
Achondroplasia is a genetic disorder affecting bone development that results in short-limb dwarfism.
Down’s syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra copy of chromosome 21.
HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system and, if left untreated, causes AIDS.
Tuberculosis is a disease caused by a bacterium that mainly affects the lungs to cause a persistent and, occasionally bloody, cough.
Streptococcal infections are any type of infection caused by the group of bacteria Streptococcus.
Staphylococcal infections are a group of infections caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus. Infection causes a range of symptoms, from skin conditions to food poisoning.
Antibiotic resistance is when bacteria develop the ability to survive exposure to antibiotics designed to kill them or stop their growth.
Genetic testing is an incredibly useful tool for identifying changes or mutations in DNA that could lead to genetic disease.
Cancer is the most common human genetic disease. The transition from a normal cell to a malignant cancer is driven by changes to a cell’s DNA, also known as mutations.
Dementia is used to describe a general decline in all areas of mental ability. It is caused by brain injury or diseases such as Alzheimer’s.
Alzheimer’s is a disease that slowly and progressively destroys the brain. It is also described as a complex disease because it can be influenced by a range of genetic and environmental factors.
Many common diseases are influenced by a combination of multiple genes and environmental factors. These diseases are referred to as complex diseases.
Sickle cell anaemia is an inherited blood disorder in which red blood cells develop abnormally.
Huntington’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that usually develops in middle to late adult life.
Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer is a rare condition, but it is the commonest inherited syndrome that predisposes sufferers to early-onset colorectal cancer.
Hereditary haemochromatosis is also known as iron overload disease. It is an inherited disorder in which iron accumulates in the blood because too much is absorbed by the intestines.
Haemophilia A and B are two disorders characterised by slow and inefficient formation of blood clots leading to prolonged bleeding and spontaneous internal bleeding.
Familial adenomatous polyposis is an inherited cancer syndrome that predisposes patients to early-onset colorectal cancer, and some other cancers.
Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy are two inherited muscle-wasting diseases caused by mutations in the same gene on the X chromosome.
A genetic disorder is a disease that is caused by a change, or mutation, in an individual’s DNA sequence.
Single gene disorders are caused by DNA changes in one particular gene, and often have predictable inheritance patterns.
A chromosome disorder results from a change in the number or structure of chromosomes.
Fragile X is a common inherited syndrome that causes intellectual disability. It affects one in every 2,000 males and one in every 6,000-8,000 females.
Genetic engineering refers to the direct manipulation of DNA to alter an organism’s characteristics (phenotype) in a particular way.
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