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The use of living organisms and biological processes to make commercially useful products.
A new cell produced when a single cell divides into two.
The process by which a cell recognises and corrects damage to its DNA.
The order of the bases in a length of DNA.
Of or relating to genes.
A plant used in agriculture that has had its DNA changed by genetic engineering/modification.
Food produced from a plant or animal that has had its DNA changed by genetic engineering/modification.
An organism that has had its genome changed by direct manipulation of its genes in a way that does not happen normally in nature.
A process where DNA is exchanged between two identical or similar DNA molecules.
When two DNA sequences are identical or similar to each other.
A change in a single base-pair in a strand of DNA.
A powder produced by the male part of plants that contains plant sperm for reproduction.
An inherited disorder affecting bone development that results in short-limb dwarfism.
The final stage of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection when the immune system has been diminished to the point that the body can no longer fight life-threatening infections.
A white, odourless gel used in gel electrophoresis, a method used to separate out molecules such as DNA, based on their size and charge.
A term used to describe the time scale of a disease, acute refers to an illness that is of short duration, develops quickly and requires urgent care.
A short, chemically-synthesised, double-stranded DNA molecule which is used to link together two other DNA molecules.
A harmful side effect associated with the use of a medication that has been taken as instructed.
A complex sugar material, generally extracted from seaweed. It is frequently used in molecular biology for the separation of DNA by size using electrophoresis.
Different form of the same gene. In humans, alleles of particular genes come in pairs, and our characteristics are determined by the combination of alleles we have.
A degenerative disease that slowly and progressively destroys the brain. It is the single most common cause of dementia.
A microscopic, single-celled organism that has the ability to alter its shape. Amoebae live in fresh and salt water, in wet soil and in animals.
A cold-blooded vertebrate animal that characteristically hatches as aquatic larva with gills before becoming a terrestrial lung-breathing adult. Include frogs, toads, newts and salamanders.
A decline in red blood cells or haemoglobin in the blood resulting in a decreased amount of oxygen being carried around the body. It results in tiredness, shortness of breath and pale skin.
Condition caused by a lack of red blood cells or lack of haemoglobin in the blood. It results in tiredness, pale skin and shortness of breath.
A type of medicine used to treat or prevent infections caused by bacteria.
When disease-causing bacteria develop the ability to survive exposure to antibiotics that were designed to kill them.
A protein secreted into the blood or lymph that binds to invading pathogens such as a bacteria, viruses and parasites. This then alerts the immune system to attack and destroy the pathogen.
Also known as programmed or controlled cell death, apoptosis is when a cell commits suicide. It has an important role in human development and disease, for example, apoptosis helps separate our fingers into 10 separate digits.
A common condition causing pain and inflammation in the joints.
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