a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
A common genetic disease caused by mutations in our DNA that lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation and the formation of a tumour.
A very thin acrylic fibre used in capillary DNA sequencing. DNA is able to pass through the middle of the fibre with small fragments passing through easier than larger fragments.
An individual who has inherited a genetic trait or mutation but does not display that trait or show symptoms of the disease. This genetic characteristic may be passed on to their offspring.
The basic structural, functional, biological unit of all living organisms. Cells provide structure for the body, take in nutrients from food and carry out the important day-to-day functions for life.
When one cell splits into two daughter cells, each containing the same genetic material.
The process by which the instructions in DNA are converted into a functional product, usually a protein. This involves the DNA instructions being converted to an RNA “message” which is then “translated” to produce a protein, a string of amino acids.
The region of DNA at the centre of a chromosome which joins the two sister chromatids together.
A medical procedure that removes heavy metals, such as mercury, from the blood. A chemical is injected into the patient which then binds to the heavy metal so that it is excreted in the urine.
A type of cancer treatment that uses chemicals to target and kill rapidly dividing cells in the body. It can lead to side effects such as hair loss.
An ion formed when a chlorine molecule gains an electron (negatively charged particle) or when hydrogen chloride is dissolved in water.
A threadlike structure in our cells, made of a long DNA molecule, wrapped around a protein scaffold. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Other organisms also have chromosomes, most bacterial chromosomes are loops or circles of DNA.
A term used to describe the time scale of a disease, chronic refers to an illness that persists for a long time or is constantly reoccurring.
Research investigations that specifically involve human volunteers. Set up to establish the safety and effectiveness of new treatments, such as drugs and vaccines.
An exact copy of something. This can refer to whole organisms or cells but also molecules such as DNA. In sequencing work, small pieces of DNA are stitched into carrier molecules (vectors) that can be copied many times in bacteria or cells. Each copy is called a clone.
When the alleles of a gene are expressed equally and neither is dominant or recessive.
Sequence of three nucleotide bases which, together, code for an amino acid during the making of a protein.
This involves a doctor inserting a small camera into a patient via the patient’s bottom to view their colon and identify any abnormalities, for example, cancer.
The preferential binding of bases A to T (or U) and C to G in DNA or RNA. For example, if there is a GTC on the DNA strand, the complementary RNA or DNA sequence will be CAG. This complementarity maintains the double helical structure of DNA.
Common diseases are caused by a combination of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. These may run in families and include diseases like diabetes, heart disease, and obesity.
A substance formed when two or more chemical elements are chemically bonded together.
Differences in the number of copies of a particular DNA segment between two or more genomes. Variations in copy number have been found within individuals, between individuals and between humans and other mammals. CNVs can result from simple duplications of DNA segments or may involve complex gains or losses of similar DNA sequences at many sites in the genome.
A relatively common genetic condition in which the lungs and digestive system become clogged with thick, sticky mucus. It is due to a specific mutation in a single gene that encodes for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein.
One of the four nucleotide bases that make up DNA. Pairs with guanine.
Is this page helpful?
Great! Anything else you'd like to see?
Sorry! What were you looking for?
Thanks! We really appreciate your feedback.
Can you spare 5-8 minutes to tell us what you think of this website? Open survey