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The process where those organisms better adapted to their environment survive and pass on their beneficial characteristics to their offspring.
Range of conditions that affect the neurons in the human brain and cause progressive brain damage. Affect balance, movement, talking and memory. For example, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.
Relating to the nerves and/or nervous system.
A chemical substance that transmits messages between nerve cells.
Sections of DNA that do not code for proteins. Although first called junk DNA it is now becoming clearer that much of this DNA has a function in controlling gene expression and chromosome structure. The amount of non-coding DNA varies amongst different species.
A functional RNA molecule that is transcribed from DNA but is not translated into a protein.
This involves the bone marrow being partially killed to supress the immune system. This may be done prior to a stem cell transplant, to avoid rejection.
A level of DNA packaging present within chromosome. Nucleosomes are formed from a single length of DNA wrapped around a series of proteins called histones.
Building blocks of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. These are adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine in DNA, and adenine, cytosine, guanine and uracil in RNA.
A structure at the centre of all eukaryotic cells that contains the genome and acts as the ‘control room’ for the cell.
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