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Subset of lymphocyte white blood cell that play a central role in human immunity.
This is an enzyme that adds the DNA sequence repeat TTAGGG, also known as telomeres, to the ends of chromosomes.
Sections of DNA found at the ends of each of our chromosomes, consisting of the same sequence of bases repeated over and over. They protect the ends of chromosomes by forming a cap.
A version of DNA base (A, C, G or T) that stops the DNA sequencing reaction when it binds to the DNA strand.
Relating to the treatment, curing or healing of a condition or disease.
One of the four nucleotide bases that make up DNA, pairs with adenine.
A group of specialised cells that work together to perform a specific function in the body.
A distinguishing quality or characteristic. A disease trait may be a particular symptom that signals a specific disease.
The first step during protein synthesis when the DNA in a gene is copied to produce an RNA transcript called messenger RNA (mRNA).
A carrier molecule important in protein synthesis. It is responsible for reading the instructions held by DNA and then carrying amino acids to the ribosome ready to make a protein as instructed.
An organism that contains additional, artificially-introduced genetic material in every cell.
The second step during protein synthesis where the message from DNA for making a protein has been taken to the ribosome and a protein is constructed with the help of tRNA.
A period of three months often used to describe the stages of a human pregnancy.
When three copies of a chromosome is present. Down’s syndrome is the result of trisomy.
A blood-sucking fly in Africa that bites both humans and animals, transmitting African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness).
A bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It mainly affects the lungs but can spread to other parts of the body, such as the bones or nervous system.
A gene that halts cell division to prevent the formation of a cancerous tumour. If mutated they can act like a broken brake, allowing cell division to occur at an uncontrollable rate.
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