a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
A progressive neurodegenerative disorder, caused by a mutation in a single gene called huntingtin (HD), which usually develops in middle to late adult life. The mutation results in neuronal cell death in select areas of the brain and causes uncontrollable muscle spasms.
Reproduction resulting from the mating of a pair of individuals that are genetically closely related. Can lead to reduced fitness in a population.
A type of stem cell generated from an adult cell that has been reprogrammed to act like an embryonic stem cell.
Disease caused by a microorganism such as a virus, bacterium or parasite. They can be spread from one person to another.
Part of a gene that is not used to make protein and is cut out from the RNA between transcription and translation.
An image of all the chromosomes from an individual cell. Used to check for large-scale chromosome abnormalities.
One thousand bases, or pairs of bases (1000 b or 1000 bp). In molecular biology, commonly used to describe the length of a DNA/RNA molecule.
Often done in model organisms, knockouts are when specific genes in an organism’s genome are inactivated. This allows scientists to understand more about the role of certain genes and what happens if they are absent.
A type of cancer affecting the blood cells. It is named according to the type of white blood cell affected and whether it is chronic or acute.
Type of white blood cell important in the immune system. There are three subsets, T cells, B cells and natural killer cells.
One million bases or base pairs (1,000,000 b or 1,000,000 bp). In molecular biology, commonly used to describe the length of a DNA/RNA molecule.
Type of RNA molecule with an important role in protein synthesis. Involved in carrying genetic information from DNA to the ribosome in the cell where proteins are made.
The power plants of our cells. Membrane-bound organelles found in most eukaryotic cells, they generate the cell’s source of energy.
When only one copy of a chromosome is present.
A form of staphylococcal infection that is resistant to a number of commonly used antibiotics.
An inherited disorder that gradually causes the muscles to weaken.
The muscular and skeletal systems. Provides form, support, stability and movement to the body.
An organism resulting from or showing the effect of a genetic mutation.
The process where those organisms better adapted to their environment survive and pass on their beneficial characteristics to their offspring.
Range of conditions that affect the neurons in the human brain and cause progressive brain damage. Affect balance, movement, talking and memory. For example, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.
Sections of DNA that do not code for proteins. Although first called junk DNA it is now becoming clearer that much of this DNA has a function in controlling gene expression and chromosome structure. The amount of non-coding DNA varies amongst different species.
This involves the bone marrow being partially killed to supress the immune system. This may be done prior to a stem cell transplant, to avoid rejection.
A level of DNA packaging present within chromosome. Nucleosomes are formed from a single length of DNA wrapped around a series of proteins called histones.
A structure at the centre of all eukaryotic cells that contains the genome and acts as the ‘control room’ for the cell.
A gene that normally directs cell growth. If mutated, an oncogene acts like a car accelerator stuck on drive, leading to uncontrolled cell growth, and cancer.
The practice of providing unrestricted and free access to the results of research, often via the internet.
A functional structure found within eukaryotic cells. Organelles carry out functions such as making proteins, processing chemicals and generating energy for the cell.
Reproductive gland in which the female reproductive cells, eggs, are produced.
An organism that lives in or on another organism and benefits at the expense of their host. Malaria is a type of parasite.
A neurodegenerative condition in which part of the brain becomes progressively more damaged. Primarily affects movement leading to tremors and muscle stiffness.
Is this page helpful?
Great! Anything else you'd like to see?
Sorry! What were you looking for?
Thanks! We really appreciate your feedback.
Can you spare 5-8 minutes to tell us what you think of this website? Open survey