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The first step during protein synthesis when the DNA in a gene is copied to produce an RNA transcript called messenger RNA (mRNA).
A distinguishing quality or characteristic. A disease trait may be a particular symptom that signals a specific disease.
A version of DNA base (A, C, G or T) that stops the DNA sequencing reaction when it binds to the DNA strand.
Sections of DNA found at the ends of each of our chromosomes, consisting of the same sequence of bases repeated over and over. They protect the ends of chromosomes by forming a cap.
This is an enzyme that adds the DNA sequence repeat TTAGGG, also known as telomeres, to the ends of chromosomes.
Subset of lymphocyte white blood cell that play a central role in human immunity.
Serious medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off and brain cells are damaged or die.
Any type of infection caused by the group of bacteria Streptococcus. Infections vary in severity from mild throat infections to pneumonia.
Cells that have the potential to develop into many different cell types in the body during early life and growth.
A group of infections caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus. The most common of this group of bacteria is Staphylococcus aureus.
Any cell forming the body of an organism. Includes all cells except the sex cells/germ cells.
Most common type of genetic variation among people. They represent a change in a single DNA base (A, C, G or T) in the DNA code.
Disorders caused by defects in one particular gene, and often have simple and predictable inheritance patterns.
Medical procedure where a doctor looks into the rectum and bowel of a patient using an instrument, inserted into the bottom, called a sigmoidoscope.
A genetic disorder characterised by a reduced number of immune cells. Can be treated with gene therapy.
A group of closely related microorganisms distinguished by a common set of antigens.
Term to describe DNA after replication, DNA molecules consist of one brand new and one of the original chains of nucleotide bases.
A group of bacteria that cause a wide spectrum of infectious diseases, including food poisoning and typhoid fever.
Small organelles found in our cells. They are responsible for assembling amino acids into proteins during protein synthesis.
A group of RNA viruses which insert a DNA copy of their genome into the host cell in order to replicate, for example, HIV.
A short strand of RNA that acts as a starting point for DNA replication.
Genetic tests carried out in the first, second and third trimesters to help determine whether a foetus has a disease or genetic abnormality, such as Down’s syndrome.
Genetic tests designed to detect specific mutated genes to determine the likelihood of an individual developing a particular disease.
A technique to make large quantities of a specific fragment of DNA. It is often used in DNA testing and fingerprinting to amplify small amounts of DNA so that scientists have enough to work with.
A cell capable of developing into any type of cell or tissue in the body.
A treatment that visibly resembles the experimental drug but has no effect on the individual. Used in clinical trials to provide a control test.
Tailoring a drug treatments to match a person’s genetic makeup – a form of ‘personalised medicine’.
An area of genomics focusing specifically on the sequencing and analysis of one person’s genome.
The evaluation of a piece of research by one or more people in the same field and of similar competence to the producers of the work.
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