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An organism that has both male and female reproductive organs.
An individual who carries two different alleles for a particular gene.
A protein found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, which is involved in packaging DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.
A process where DNA is exchanged between two identical or similar DNA molecules.
When two DNA sequences are identical or similar to each other.
An individual who carries two of the same alleles for a certain gene.
The body’s chemical messengers, carried in the bloodstream to tissues or organs. Important in many processes in the body, from reproduction to development.
An international biological research project, launched in 1990, with the goal of sequencing the human genome for the first time and making the data freely available online.
A retrovirus that infects humans and attacks the immune system. Left untreated, HIV can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A group of viruses that infect your skin and the moist membranes lining your body, such as your mouth, throat and genitals. Cause abnormal tissue growth and genital warts.
A progressive neurodegenerative disorder, caused by a mutation in a single gene called huntingtin (HD), which usually develops in middle to late adult life. The mutation results in neuronal cell death in select areas of the brain and causes uncontrollable muscle spasms.
An attractive interaction between two molecules. Hydrogen bonds hold the nucleotide bases (A, C, G and T) together in the DNA double helix.
Your body’s defence system that recognises and defends the body against pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.
The ability of an organism to resist a particular infection or disease due to having the specific antibodies or white blood cells needed to defend against it.
Reproduction resulting from the mating of a pair of individuals that are genetically closely related. Can lead to reduced fitness in a population.
The time it takes between becoming infected with a disease and beginning to show symptoms.
A type of stem cell generated from an adult cell that has been reprogrammed to act like an embryonic stem cell.
Disease caused by a microorganism such as a virus, bacterium or parasite. They can be spread from one person to another.
An immune reaction that results in localised redness, warmth and swelling. It generally occurs in response to an infection, irritation or injury.
The process by which genes and characteristics are passed down from parent to offspring.
The inability to sleep.
A hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates the amount of the sugar glucose in the blood. A lack of insulin or an inability to respond to insulin causes diabetes.
Part of a gene that is not used to make protein and is cut out from the RNA between transcription and translation.
An electrically charged particle formed when an atom loses or gains electrons.
An image of all the chromosomes from an individual cell. Used to check for large-scale chromosome abnormalities.
One thousand bases, or pairs of bases (1000 b or 1000 bp). In molecular biology, commonly used to describe the length of a DNA/RNA molecule.
Often done in model organisms, knockouts are when specific genes in an organism’s genome are inactivated. This allows scientists to understand more about the role of certain genes and what happens if they are absent.
The lagging strand is a single DNA strand that, during DNA replication, is replicated in the 5' - 3' direction (opposite direction to the replication fork). DNA is added to the lagging strand in discontinuous chunks called ‘okazaki fragments’.
The immature form of an organism, for example an insect, which will develop into something else in adulthood.
The leading strand is a single DNA strand that, during DNA replication, is replicated in the 3’ – 5’ direction (same direction as the replication fork). DNA is added to the leading strand continuously, one complementary base at a time.
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