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The first step during protein synthesis when the DNA in a gene is copied to produce an RNA transcript called messenger RNA (mRNA).
A carrier molecule important in protein synthesis. It is responsible for reading the instructions held by DNA and then carrying amino acids to the ribosome ready to make a protein as instructed.
An organism that contains additional, artificially-introduced genetic material in every cell.
The second step during protein synthesis where the message from DNA for making a protein has been taken to the ribosome and a protein is constructed with the help of tRNA.
When three copies of a chromosome is present. Down’s syndrome is the result of trisomy.
A bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It mainly affects the lungs but can spread to other parts of the body, such as the bones or nervous system.
A gene that halts cell division to prevent the formation of a cancerous tumour. If mutated they can act like a broken brake, allowing cell division to occur at an uncontrollable rate.
Small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms. Can infect all life forms from animals, to plants. Influenza is a virus.
Cells with a key role in the immune system, defending the body against disease and infection. There are a number of types of white blood cell, including lymphocytes.
A white, odourless gel used in gel electrophoresis, a method used to separate out molecules such as DNA, based on their size and charge.
A complex sugar material, generally extracted from seaweed. It is frequently used in molecular biology for the separation of DNA by size using electrophoresis.
A decline in red blood cells or haemoglobin in the blood resulting in a decreased amount of oxygen being carried around the body. It results in tiredness, shortness of breath and pale skin.
A common condition causing pain and inflammation in the joints.
A developmental disability that affects how a person communicates with, and relates to, other people. It is often diagnosed in early childhood and is characterised by repetitive behaviour, such as stacking or lining up objects.
The surgical examination of a dead body to find out the exact cause of death. Also known as a post-mortem examination.
Relating to the chemical processes that occur within living organisms.
A very thin acrylic fibre used in capillary DNA sequencing. DNA is able to pass through the middle of the fibre with small fragments passing through easier than larger fragments.
The basic structural, functional, biological unit of all living organisms. Cells provide structure for the body, take in nutrients from food and carry out the important day-to-day functions for life.
The region of DNA at the centre of a chromosome which joins the two sister chromatids together.
A medical procedure that removes heavy metals, such as mercury, from the blood. A chemical is injected into the patient which then binds to the heavy metal so that it is excreted in the urine.
A type of cancer treatment that uses chemicals to target and kill rapidly dividing cells in the body. It can lead to side effects such as hair loss.
An ion formed when a chlorine molecule gains an electron (negatively charged particle) or when hydrogen chloride is dissolved in water.
When the alleles of a gene are expressed equally and neither is dominant or recessive.
A substance formed when two or more chemical elements are chemically bonded together.
An enzyme that joins together two strands of DNA.
A chemical in the body that controls movement, emotional response and our ability to experience pleasure and pain.
The structure formed by double-stranded molecules of DNA. The double helix structure of DNA was discovered by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953.
A substance that has a physiological or biochemical effect on our bodies. These effects are generally intended to be beneficial but can cause harm in some people.
A conductor through which an electric current enters or leaves an object.
A type of heart infection where the inner lining of the heart, called the endocardium, becomes swollen. It usually occurs when bacteria attach to damaged areas of the heart.
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