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A colourless liquid that is secreted from the blood into specific parts of the brain to help maintain the critical pressure within the brain and spinal cord.
A group of infections caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus. The most common of this group of bacteria is Staphylococcus aureus.
Cells that have the potential to develop into many different cell types in the body during early life and growth.
Any type of infection caused by the group of bacteria Streptococcus. Infections vary in severity from mild throat infections to pneumonia.
Serious medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off and brain cells are damaged or die.
The likelihood of being vulnerable to a particular thing, for example, a genetic disease.
Subset of lymphocyte white blood cell that play a central role in human immunity.
This is an enzyme that adds the DNA sequence repeat TTAGGG, also known as telomeres, to the ends of chromosomes.
Sections of DNA found at the ends of each of our chromosomes, consisting of the same sequence of bases repeated over and over. They protect the ends of chromosomes by forming a cap.
A version of DNA base (A, C, G or T) that stops the DNA sequencing reaction when it binds to the DNA strand.
Relating to the treatment, curing or healing of a condition or disease.
One of the four nucleotide bases that make up DNA, pairs with adenine.
A group of specialised cells that work together to perform a specific function in the body.
A distinguishing quality or characteristic. A disease trait may be a particular symptom that signals a specific disease.
The first step during protein synthesis when the DNA in a gene is copied to produce an RNA transcript called messenger RNA (mRNA).
A carrier molecule important in protein synthesis. It is responsible for reading the instructions held by DNA and then carrying amino acids to the ribosome ready to make a protein as instructed.
An organism that contains additional, artificially-introduced genetic material in every cell.
The second step during protein synthesis where the message from DNA for making a protein has been taken to the ribosome and a protein is constructed with the help of tRNA.
A period of three months often used to describe the stages of a human pregnancy.
When three copies of a chromosome is present. Down’s syndrome is the result of trisomy.
A blood-sucking fly in Africa that bites both humans and animals, transmitting African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness).
A bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It mainly affects the lungs but can spread to other parts of the body, such as the bones or nervous system.
A gene that halts cell division to prevent the formation of a cancerous tumour. If mutated they can act like a broken brake, allowing cell division to occur at an uncontrollable rate.
A database holding the DNA profiles and samples of UK individuals. It is the largest database of its kind in the world and is continuing to grow each year.
One of the four nucleotide bases that make up RNA (instead of thymine), pairs with adenine.
A biological preparation that is given to an individual to stimulate their immune system so that it will recognise a particular pathogen in the future. A vaccine usually contains a small amount of the pathogen so that the body will recognise it as foreign and produce antibodies against it.
A vehicle for delivering genetic material, such as DNA, into a cell. Useful in genetic engineering. Often a bacterium.
Animals with backbones.
Small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms. Can infect all life forms from animals, to plants. Influenza is a virus.
Cells with a key role in the immune system, defending the body against disease and infection. There are a number of types of white blood cell, including lymphocytes.
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