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Sequence of three nucleotide bases which, together, code for an amino acid during the making of a protein.
The preferential binding of bases A to T (or U) and C to G in DNA or RNA. For example, if there is a GTC on the DNA strand, the complementary RNA or DNA sequence will be CAG. This complementarity maintains the double helical structure of DNA.
A relatively common genetic condition in which the lungs and digestive system become clogged with thick, sticky mucus. It is due to a specific mutation in a single gene that encodes for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein.
One of the four nucleotide bases that make up DNA. Pairs with guanine.
A genetic test that can be bought directly online. It allows consumers to access the information in their genomes without the involvement of a health professional.
A long molecule that contains our unique genetic code. It holds the instructions for making all the proteins in our bodies.
The process by which a cell makes an identical copy of its genome before it divides.
The process of determining the order of bases in a length of DNA.
Process by which fragments of DNA are separated according to size under the influence of an electric field applied to a gel or fluid.
Section of DNA within the genome that carries the information to make a molecule, usually a protein. They contain the instructions for our individual characteristics, like eye and hair colour. In humans and other complex organisms, genes are split into coding (exons) and non-coding sequences (introns). These split sections allow some genes to make more than one type of protein.
This is the average time between an organism being born and then producing offspring itself.
The study of genes and how certain characteristics are passed from one generation to the next.
An organism’s complete set of genetic instructions. Each genome contains all of the information needed to build that organism and allow it to grow and develop. Our genome is approximately 3,000,000,000 base pairs long and is packaged into 23 pairs of chromosomes.
The study of the structure and function of genomes.
One of the four nucleotide bases that make up DNA, pairs with cytosine.
An international biological research project, launched in 1990, with the goal of sequencing the human genome for the first time and making the data freely available online.
An attractive interaction between two molecules. Hydrogen bonds hold the nucleotide bases (A, C, G and T) together in the DNA double helix.
The process by which genes and characteristics are passed down from parent to offspring.
A model organism is a species that has been widely studied, usually because it is easy to maintain and breed in a laboratory setting and has particular experimental advantages.
A change that occurs in a DNA sequence. Mutations are relatively common in our DNA, but most have no detectable effect.
Building blocks of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. These are adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine in DNA, and adenine, cytosine, guanine and uracil in RNA.
A patent is a right granted to an individual or company to protect inventions from being used or sold by other parties.
Large molecules made up of chains of amino acids. Proteins are essential to the functioning of our cells.
A nucleic acid similar in structure and properties to DNA, but it only has a single strand of bases and instead of the base thymine (T), RNA has a base called uracil (U).
The first DNA sequencing method, developed in 1977 by Fred Sanger and his team.
The method of determining the order of letters or bases in DNA, or the order of amino acids in a protein molecule.
One of the four nucleotide bases that make up DNA, pairs with adenine.
A database holding the DNA profiles and samples of UK individuals. It is the largest database of its kind in the world and is continuing to grow each year.
One of the four nucleotide bases that make up RNA (instead of thymine), pairs with adenine.
A technique used to precisely and efficiently modify DNA within a cell. It can be used to add, remove, or alter DNA in the genome.
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