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A version of DNA base (A, C, G or T) that stops the DNA sequencing reaction when it binds to the DNA strand.
Relating to the treatment, curing or healing of a condition or disease.
A group of specialised cells that work together to perform a specific function in the body.
A distinguishing quality or characteristic. A disease trait may be a particular symptom that signals a specific disease.
The first step during protein synthesis when the DNA in a gene is copied to produce an RNA transcript called messenger RNA (mRNA).
A carrier molecule important in protein synthesis. It is responsible for reading the instructions held by DNA and then carrying amino acids to the ribosome ready to make a protein as instructed.
An organism that contains additional, artificially-introduced genetic material in every cell.
The second step during protein synthesis where the message from DNA for making a protein has been taken to the ribosome and a protein is constructed with the help of tRNA.
A period of three months often used to describe the stages of a human pregnancy.
When three copies of a chromosome is present. Down’s syndrome is the result of trisomy.
A blood-sucking fly in Africa that bites both humans and animals, transmitting African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness).
A bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It mainly affects the lungs but can spread to other parts of the body, such as the bones or nervous system.
A gene that halts cell division to prevent the formation of a cancerous tumour. If mutated they can act like a broken brake, allowing cell division to occur at an uncontrollable rate.
A biological preparation that is given to an individual to stimulate their immune system so that it will recognise a particular pathogen in the future. A vaccine usually contains a small amount of the pathogen so that the body will recognise it as foreign and produce antibodies against it.
A vehicle for delivering genetic material, such as DNA, into a cell. Useful in genetic engineering. Often a bacterium.
Animals with backbones.
Small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms. Can infect all life forms from animals, to plants. Influenza is a virus.
Cells with a key role in the immune system, defending the body against disease and infection. There are a number of types of white blood cell, including lymphocytes.
A hollow, pear-shaped organ located in a women’s lower abdomen. This is where a baby develops during pregnancy.
The use of living organisms and biological processes to make commercially useful products.
A new cell produced when a single cell divides into two.
The process by which a cell recognises and corrects damage to its DNA.
The order of the bases in a length of DNA.
Of or relating to genes.
A plant used in agriculture that has had its DNA changed by genetic engineering/modification.
Food produced from a plant or animal that has had its DNA changed by genetic engineering/modification.
An organism that has had its genome changed by direct manipulation of its genes in a way that does not happen normally in nature.
A process where DNA is exchanged between two identical or similar DNA molecules.
When two DNA sequences are identical or similar to each other.
A change in a single base-pair in a strand of DNA.
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