Making a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) Library

This animation provides an overview of the techniques involved in making a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library. 

This animation takes you through the techniques used to make a BAC library, an essential process during the Human Genome Project

A Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) acts as a vehicle to artificially carry and store DNA into a bacterial cell. Because the human genome is too large to be sequenced from one end to the other in one go it has to be split up into manageable chunks. These chunks can be placed into a bacterium, such as Escherichia coli, and then stored long term. During the Human Genome Project a series of BACs were used to store fragments of human DNA to create a 'library' containing the human genome. The human DNA from these BACs could then be sequenced and pieced together to generate the full human genome sequence.

This animation covers the four key stages in the process of creating a BAC library:

  1. Extracting DNA from white blood cells and using restriction enzymes to "cut up" the DNA into smaller fragments.
  2. Gel electrophoresis to separate and select DNA fragments by size.
  3. Creating BAC clones by inserting DNA fragments into vectors and transferring them into bacterial cells.
  4. Selection of the BAC clones for the library.

This page was last updated on 2021-07-21